Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging
CT is an x-ray imaging procedure that uses a computer to combine multiple x-ray images to generate cross-sectional views, and when necessary, three-dimensional images of the structures of the body.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Positron emission tomography (PET) generates images depicting the distribution of positron-emitting nuclides in patients. PET scanners use annihilation coincidence detection (ACD) instead of collimation to obtain projections of activity distribution in the subject. Relying on the applications of certain radiopharmaceuticals, PET can provide useful insight into the biological activities of patients.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) / Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging
The CT-PET scanner combines positron emission tomography (PET) and high-speed, multi-slice computerized tomography (CT) imaging into an integrated system. PET captures images of miniscule changes in the body's metabolism caused by the growth of abnormal cells, while CT images simultaneously allow physicians to pinpoint the exact location, size, and shape of the diseased tissue or tumor.
Froedtert & Medical College is one of the first in the country to offer this new technology that allows physicians to detect tumors earlier by providing a more specific, comprehensive picture of disease.
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging (MRSI) is a powerful tool that can provide useful biological/functional information associated with many different metabolites, allowing clinicians see changes in chemistry that indicate a change in cell activity - even when there is no apparent tumor. Among the various techniques, proton spectroscopy is attractive in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution, signal to noise, and acquisition time. Molecules that can be studied with MRSI include water, lipids, choline, citrate, lactate, and creatine, and amino acids.
In recent years, MRSI has grown in its application and availability for imaging various locations of the body. MRSI can provide a biological description of the chemical makeup of an imaged area in order to determine the presence of cancer. Furthermore, in situations where MRI is sensitive but not readily specific (post-biopsy hemorrhage, prostatitis, inflammation, tissue necrosis, interglandular dysplasia, prior local therapy, etc), MRSI allows us to better differentiate cancerous regions from normal tissue.
In our department, magnetic resonance spectroscopy is currently being used in a study to determine the MRS findings before, during, and after radiation for cervix cancer. Preparation of using MRSI to guide radiation therapy for prostate and brain tumors is underway.
functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
fMRI is an imaging technique that is used to determine which parts of the brain correspond to particular activities or physical sensations (i.e., sound, sight, or the movement of an object). This 'mapping of the brain' is achieved by setting up an advanced MRI scanner in a special way so that the increased blood flow to the activated areas of the brain shows up on Functional MRI scans.