Department of Ophthalmology Case Studies


For Medical Students

This is a collection of case studies to help you get an insight on the typical history and initial examination of various ophthalmic disorders. The discussion, although brief, is intended to give you a simple overview of each disease. The questions at the end of each case are a good review for M3 Ophthalmology rotation final examination. Feel free to contact Dr. Wanda Martinez or Dr. Kimberly Stepien with any questions regarding the cases.

ObjectivesDepartment of Ophthalmology Case Studies

After thoroughly reviewing these case studies, the learner will be able to:

  • Recognize and describe the typical presentation of common conditions affecting the anterior and posterior segments of the eye;
  • Consider a range of multiple etiologies when examining patients with eye or vision problems, including trauma, infection, congenital abnormalities, autoimmunity, vascular issues, metabolic deficiencies, and environmental causes;
  • Recall the basic pathophysiology underlying numerous ophthalmic conditions;
  • Evaluate the significance of clinical findings in relation to common ophthalmic diseases;
  • Formulate a differential diagnosis after reviewing the patient’s history and ocular exam;
  • Identify which laboratory tests or exams are appropriate to confirm and evaluate specific ophthalmic diagnoses;
  • Discuss therapeutic options and treatment plans for a number of acute and chronic ophthalmic diseases.
Case 1

Sudden onset of right eye pain, severe headache, blurred vision, nausea, and vomiting

Case 2
Red, itchy eyes

Case 3
Left eye pain and blurry vision

Case 4
My eye hurts and my vision is fuzzy

Case 5
2 1/2 year old patient rubbing right eye post trauma event

Case 6
Red eye and pain on the left

Case 7
Recent loss of vision in left eye

Case 8
Crossed eyes

Case 9
Decreased vision in right eye

Case 10
White pupils

Case 11
Blurry vision x 2 weeks in left eye

Case 12
Burning pain in left eye

Case 13
Irritated eyes

Case 14
Can’t see well from left eye

Case 15
Yearly check-up

Case 16
Annual refraction appointment

Case 17
Brief loss of vision x 2 episodes

Case 18
High intraocular pressure and an enlarged cup-to-disc-ratio

Disclaimer for Our Patients-

Although these cases provide a little information on the typical presentation of various ophthalmic diseases it should not replace a personal consultation with an ophthalmologist or other eye care provider. If you are having any problems with your vision, feel free to call (414) 955-2020 and make an appointment to see any of us. We would be delighted to see you.

Contact Us

For questions regarding the cases:

Wanda M. Martinez, MD, PhD Email

Kimberly E. Stepien, MD Email

Eye Institute, Froedtert Hospital
925 N. 87th St.
Milwaukee, WI
(414) 955-2020 - main number
(414) 955-6300 (Fax)
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8701 Watertown Plank Road
Milwaukee, WI 53226
(414) 955-8296
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Page Updated 11/21/2014
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