- Traditional Clinical Cardiology Training Track
This is a three-year program with the first two years dedicated to rotations through all of the clinical cardiology rotations (see below). The final year will be a focused clinical year in one of several areas including noninvasive-nuclear, invasive, arrhythmia management, heart failure transplantation, and vascular diseases. Clinical research activities will be available throughout the three years.
Cardiology has become a highly complex subspecialty with a vigorous training program involving many technical and clinical units. The 36 months of clinical training at the Medical College of Wisconsin are a very busy series of rotations covering hemodynamics, electrophysiology, consultant cardiology, echocardiographic and Doppler imaging, cardiac catheterization, nuclear cardiology, cardiac rehabilitation and exercise testing, basic cardiac pharmacology and physiology, acute coronary and post-operative care, and beginning interventional cardiology.
The program is developed within the Cardiology Services of Froedtert Hospital, Veterans Administration Medical Center and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. The objectives of this Fellowship have been set at a high level with a rigorous agenda: to develop first-rate skills in all aspects of cardiac diagnosis, to became proficient in the management of the more complex cardiovascular patient, and for appropriate individuals to successfully complete a formal program of supervised cardiac research. Fellows will learn to deal effectively with a vast cardiology scientific literature and develop habits of keeping abreast with newer developments. They will develop a critical stance toward technology but at the same time learn to use the more proven powerful tools of contemporary cardiovascular medicine. It is anticipated that fellows will develop a special interest in some area of cardiology. This is natural and will be encouraged throughout the program. The second half of the general cardiology fellowship is heavily weighed towards electives to promote this process. Potential specialty areas include intervention (requires additional year), electrophysiology and arrhythmia management (requires additional year), end stage heart disease, and non-invasive imaging. The track record of clinical training at the Medical College of Wisconsin has been excellent with 100% Cardiology Boards pass rate of graduating fellows for more than 5 years. The division is committed to continuing this tradition of excellence.
- Clinical/Cardiovascular Research Training Track
This is a four-year program with the first year being dedicated to general cardiology. The middle two years involve basic cardiovascular research and the final year is either a general or specialized cardiology training year.
The CVRC serves as the focal point for research training in the two middle years of the Clinical/Cardiovascular Research Training Track of the cardiology fellowship training program. A majority of the CVRC investigators have committed time and resources to this training effort. We would anticipate that fellows completing this training would be well positioned to begin a career in academic cardiovascular disease.
The purpose of the Cardiovascular Research Center is to serve as a multidisciplinary research unit integrating molecular and cellular biology with more conventional research techniques aimed at understanding the mechanisms which control the circulation and heart in normal and diseased states. One of the principal initiatives of the CVRC is to serve as a training and resource center for the study of molecular mechanisms related to endothelial, vascular muscle cell, pulmonary and cardiac muscle function. Toward this end, we have set up core laboratories in molecular biology, analytical chemistry and confocal microscopy. Basic and clinical scientists around campus use these core resources free of charge and are trained by members within the CVRC core laboratories. Principal functions of the CVRC include:
- developing centralized themes for programmatic research funding,
- forming a critical mass of ideas and investigators with the goal of expanding research potential,
- creating a center with a high level of visibility at the community, national, and international levels with the purpose of providing a focus for contributions and endowments, and
- serving as a recruiting tool for new faculty and enhancing the profile of existing faculty.
On non-ward based rotations, such as echocardiography, electrophysiology and catheterization laboratory rotations, cardiology fellows usually work one-on-one with the attending cardiologists. As the fellow progresses in proficiency, increased autonomy is encouraged to the level of an independent operator. On ward based rotations, such as the inpatient and consultation services, the cardiology attending and fellow also work closely. The cardiology fellow usually provides direct supervision of the medicine residents and medical students, with the attending monitoring for appropriate management decisions for the team.
Cardiology fellows rotate night and weekend call, distributed evenly throughout all years of the fellowship. The fellow covers both the VA and Froedtert Hospitals from home. The cardiology fellow are expected to evaluate all cardiology admissions in the intensive care unit and review them with the attending cardiologist. Attending physicians are always on call to help with complex management decisions or perform any urgent procedures. In-hospital medicine residents are responsible for the general cardiology admissions, with the at-home fellow available for questions.
The fellows have a one half-day continuity clinic each week, alternating between the VA and Froedtert. At the VA, the fellow acts as the primary cardiologist, supervised by a VA staff physician. At Froedtert, each fellow is paired with a faculty member and works with that physician over the entire course of the fellowship.
The Cardiology training program at the Milwaukee Regional Medical Center's Froedtert Hospital provides the following rotations:
The Cardiology training program at the VA Medical Center provides the following specific rotations:
- Terms, Conditions and Benefits of Employment
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